Sine Wave Generator Possibilities
May 20, 2016
I was trained and functioned as a Systems Designer for many years.  Any new system that is being
designed should probably follow certain guidelines.  Regardless of what design we go with, we should
complexify it at first and simplify it later after we know what we want.  This is one of the standard
"tricks" of new product development or systems design, if you prefer.  When you don't know what
parameters are optimum, the design should be more flexible and controllable in order to make
adjustments while experimenting.  Start out with lots of knobs, "bells and whistles" (sensors) and
simplify later on when you understand what works.

May I suggest that you wouldn't put an automatic choke on the first petrol-engine design, would you?  
No.  You would start with a manual choke until you understood the operation of an Internal
Combustion Engine more thoroughly.  

When you mix everything into one cartridge, it is implied that you know the right mix before the
experiment begins.  If Rossi started with H2 from a cylinder and then moved to LAH later on, he
gained some knowledge during the H2-from-a-cylinder phase, which he was able to apply to the LAH-
phase design.  Just because he has 'moved on' doesn't mean that we know enough to 'move on'.  I
shouldn't be too bold here because maybe you actually know the right mix for your fuel cartridges, and
it only I that feels clueless.  If you are that confident, I will not challenge your knowledge because I
have very little knowledge myself.  

What I picture in my mind is Rossi pouring one gram of a powder into the center of the Lugano
dogbone and sealing it off.  Are we sure we know the mix he was using?  

From my own personal perspective, since I don't understand that much about LENR reactions, I feel
that we should have more control over each part of the reaction.  Excuse me if I sound critical...it is
simply the reaction of a systems designer who doesn't understand much about the system yet.

As to the proposed design:
Adjust the spark and the location of the LAH so as to provide H+ and H- ions to the NiLi mix on the
right.  (If the ions don't last long enough to react with the NiLi on the right, then we might want the
spark to be overhead instead.  Maybe between an electrode and the NiLi mix itself.)  The further the
LAH is from the main reaction, the less heat it will receive from the main heater coil.  For a prototype
design, we cannot adjust the distance between the LAH and main reactants so might want to have a
separate heater coil for the LAH in order to be able to find the right temperature and operating
conditions for each part of the reaction.  Individual sensors could be used to separately adjust the
temperature of each compartment.

We could adjust the temperature of the NiLi mix to maximize the reaction without melting down all of
the LAH.  Turning off the heat is not quick enough once the reaction is out of control.  This, I suspect,
is why me356 wanted to add coolant to his design before proceeding.  He also played with electrical
discharge, perhaps because it can be shut off quickly.  Whereas that is good thinking, he seems to have
gone too far and showered his electronics with enough neutrons to "cook them".  Coolant is another
means to moderate a reaction such as ours.  It is one of the moderators used in an atomic power plant
to control the rate of reaction to the critical point and prevent supercriticality.  me356 also mentioned
that most of his experiments end up in thermal runaway or nuclear power plant engineers call
"meltdown".  

The tungsten rods that I recommend for electrical discharge are impregnated with Thorium; an idea
from Joseph Papp and TIG welding.  The addition of thorium decreases the work function of the
electrode and promotes the ignition of the arc.  Due to the radioactivity of Thorium, this might also
help start an LENR reaction.  

don


--------------------------

Eric Walker, May 18, 2016 lenr-forum
@Alan Smith, in a future iteration, I hope you guys will consider a modified version of this discharge
tube with something weakly radioactive that has beta or alpha decay as decay modes. (By contrast,
nickel has electron capture and, theoretically, double electron capture.) Three possibilities come to
mind that should be obtainable: potassium, tungsten and thorium.

----------------------
20 kV and tungsten, and an X-Ray tube is pretty much guaranteed.

Yes -- this is voltage sufficient to accelerate electrons up to 20 keV and thereby excite tightly bound
electrons. I think nickel electrodes will produce x-rays as well. The presentation mentions 400 kV
sparks.

High voltage may be useful for seeing excess heat. Perhaps the apparatus can be given adequate
shielding?
----------------------
Alan Smith:
@Wytennbach
[Since the R.Mills (about 50 papers), Parkhomow (about 6 papers), Mizuno (ICCF 11 p. 161) et all's
experiments it is well known, that low voltage and high current is the key to successful LENR
reactions. High current leads to a high B field which is able to align protons/deuterions and thus
forming a kind of condensed "readberg-matter".

We have that. All Lookingforheat's reactors are designed to operate at 50V and around 10A. This is for
safety reasons as well as boosting the B field inside the reactor. So I am thinking of a system with
several triggers here. We have 1. Heat, 2, B-Field, 3. HT (400kV).

The heater coils- will post a picture later - are split into 4 parts- 2 groups of 2. The induced EM field
goes N-S/ N-S/ N-S/N-S along the reactor - but coils 1 and 3, and 2 and 4 are driven by separate DC-
PWM circuits which are designed to 'heterodyne' with non-synchronised square waves at 16kHz. So we
will have a great deal going on.

Thank you for your interest. My own thought on a name btw was 'PlasmaCat'....

I think the chances of catching a stray 400kV electrical hit are hopefully small. Keep one hand in your
pocket when working with EHT is a good policy. (Not holding your nuts though) Good chance stray
HT might screw a few instruments though. However, because of the (probable) impossibility of getting
useful data out of a system running a permanent 400kV plasma-arc the plan is to use the arc in bursts
only.

BTW, someone earlier in the thread asked about Quartz tubes with plain end-caps.LFH have just put
into stock some low-cost 130X10mm Quartz tubes with a 2mm wall thickness. We also have plain
fittings for them, or can engineer any extra fittings (tubes, valves etc) for the end-caps you fancy.

@Axil. Thanks for the link- I had read the Klimov paper but some time ago - a useful reminder. I note
he was also using Nickel Electrodes. I have plenty of lead shielding, and good Beta/Gamma/X-ray
detection. Unlike Klimov and co though I wont be adding copper and iron to the fuel- but more on that
later.
-----------------
But it's always better to expose the nickel negative charge, which attracts & implants the protons, not
just vibrates it.

While that would appear on the face of it to make sense.... very clearly the Lipinski-UGC WIPO
application shows definite far stronger yields from positive target biases. With also the necessity to
alternate the fields frequently, the highest yields being square waves superimposed on DC positive bias
at up to 1400 Hz.

All seems to be evidence that for low energy fusions there must be some form of anionic proton (H
minus, H2 minus or?) involved.
-------------------
I contend that a spark and a thermalized LENR reaction are incompatible due to the destructive EMF
that the spark generates. Yet the spark is a great way to produce the precursors of the LENR reaction
which must exist for the LENR reaction to fire up.

The precursors are metastable and will remain viable through a reactor off cycle. This is the reason
why a reactor can be restarted and shut down repeatedly while the fuel is still stable.

Using a spark produces huge amounts of x-rays instead of infrared photons. This EMF production
makes the use of LENR as a commercial product problematical. There are a number of strategies that
can get around this x-ray problem.

1 – as is done in the SunCell use a shield made of tungsten or carbon as a means to convert the XUV
and X-rays into infrared EMF.

2 – as done in the Rossi reactor, preprocess the fuel to create and then carry the metastable LENR
reaction precursors from a fuel pre-preparation stage to a run time environment. In the fuel pre-prep
stage, abundant X-rays are produced using a spark that forms the pre-cursors held inside sintered and
porous micro particles of nickel between 1 and 100 microns on size.

3 – as done in the DGT system fire the spark occasionally to produce the precursors then run spark free
for a time until the reactor requires additional “fuel” to be manufactured. This method runs at a
reduced COP because the spark destroys the thermalization produced by superconductivity after the
spark is fired. It takes some time for the superconductivity to reestablish all the while X-rays are
produced instead of infrared photons.
------------
The principal difference is that we are looking at temperatures below 1500C and reactor pressures of 1
bar of Hydrogen or below. So The spark is applied only intermittently as a 'trigger' - principally in an
attempt to dissociate H2 to monatomic H. This may encourage it to make whoopee with the free Li/Ni
powder circulating inside the reactor.


http://mainland.cctt.org/istf2008/generators.asp



Next